Essentials of Gita Bhashya and Tatparya of Sri Madhwacharya

vyasa-devaru-madhwa-guru

Agent alone does not execute an activity:

Most men are under the wrong impression that it is only karta or the agent who solely  responsible for the activity undertaken by him.  But there are five factors underlying each activity.

These are:

  1. Adhisthana i.e., the place, the ground, or the object with reference to which an activity is initiated.
  2. Karta i.e., agent, the Jiva who is only a dependent agent.
  3. Karana i.e., the instruments i.e. Indriyas etc.
  4. Vividha chesta i.e. the various actions of these that are necessary for the production of results.
  5. Daiva i.e. the supreme God who is behind all these as director and regulator.

Philosophical meanings of karma, akarma and vikarma:

The expressions karma, akarma and vikarma apart from meaning action, inaction, and wrong action have deeper philosophical meanings also.  This philosophical meaning is brought out in the verse ‘Karmani akarma yah pasyet’ etc.  When one undertakes an activity, one must realize that it is not he who is doing but God is behind it.  This is what is meant by ‘Karmani akarma’.  Similarly, when one is not doing anything, say in the dream, one has to realize that God is active even then, this is ‘akarmani karma’.  Thus one has to realize that all his activities are prompted by God and even when one is not active God is active.  This is the philosophical meaning of ‘Karmani akarma’ etc.  The expressions karma and akarma also mean Jiva and God respectively.  Karma ie. Jiva is akarma inactive in the sense that he cannot undertake any activity independently. Similarly akarma i.e., God is karma always active independently.  The realization of these philosophical meanings gives correct perspective in respect of one’s ability.

This will check our kartrtvabhimana and enable us to subdue our raga, dvesa etc.  Further, one has to realize that all activities are sponsored by the God, designated as Prakrti, according to the nature of the jiva concerned and given affect to through his body, antahkarana etc.  He has also to realize that it is all the play of the attributes of prakrti i.e., satva, rajas etc. directed and regulated by the supreme God.  Such a realization will pave the way for nivrttakarmanusthana.  The word Prakrti has both meanings viz. God, and Jadaprakrti.

Engaging oneself in such a nivrttikarma, one has to dedicate the results of his activity at the feet of God.  This is tyaga, Gita declares it more than once.  ‘Mayi servanikarmani sammyasya’ ‘[Yat karosi yad asnasi’ etc. several statements make it clear that the fulfillment of work is in the dedication of it to the God.  Work is worship is the motto of Gita.  ‘Svakarmanatam abhyaechya Siddhim Vindati manavah’.

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